This CRS Report, updated as warranted, discusses the agreement on civilian nuclear cooperation with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) by focusing on congressional roles in crafting and carrying out the agreement. Some Members have been concerned about U.S. nuclear cooperation with China in the context of China’s practices related to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Members also have been interested in how Congress reviewed the agreement with China as well as how this
experience might apply to other similar agreements, such as that with India. Congress also exercises oversight of exchanges with China in the nuclear area conducted by the Department of Energy and its National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Some Members have considered whether financing by the U.S. Export-Import Bank should support nuclear exports to China.