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Articles and Reports
July 21, 2022
Iran has installed several cascades of more powerful centrifuge models in production lines, where they have steadily increased both the size and enrichment level of Iran's uranium stockpile. This progress increases the risk of secret sites – permitting them to be smaller and easier to hide. Iran has used such sites to carry out illicit activity in...
Articles and Reports
February 28, 2022
Iran views its external security as reliant on its ability to exert influence in the Middle East. Owing to Tehran’s relative diplomatic and economic isolation, military power is the main tool available to Iran’s leaders for attaining this objective. To be effective, however, Iran must be able to use its military capabilities to credibly threaten...
Articles and Reports
November 22, 2021
This article was first published in The Iran Primer. It is based on an Iran Watch report, Beyond the IR-1: Iran’s Advanced Centrifuges and their Lasting Implications.
Articles and Reports
November 22, 2021
As a result of illicit imports and domestic development since the late 1980s, Iran now possesses thousands of gas centrifuges, which are the mainstay of its nuclear program. These rapidly spinning machines enable Iran to enrich uranium to a level suitable for nuclear reactor fuel, or to a higher level suitable for nuclear weapons. The number and...
Articles and Reports
May 27, 2021
The new U.S. administration is seeking to reenter the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), the nuclear agreement reached in 2015 with Iran and six other parties. This effort has been complicated by the previous administration's "maximum pressure" policy, which sought to squeeze Iran with sanctions.
Articles and Reports
January 27, 2021
On October 8, 2020, the United States designated Iran’s financial sector and sanctioned eighteen Iranian banks. In doing so, the U.S. Treasury Department applied secondary sanctions to Iran's entire financial sector for the first time, potentially barring foreign entities from the U.S. financial system.
Articles and Reports
March 31, 2020
The indictment of Turkish state-owned Halkbank, unsealed late last year, is the first against a major bank for sanctions violations brought by the United States. The case sheds light on how, in the midst of negotiations on its nuclear program, Iran relied on this bank to launder money in order to relieve the economic pressure of international...
Articles and Reports
February 27, 2020
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) with Iran entered a new phase last month when the European parties to the agreement triggered its dispute resolution mechanism. The move comes months after Iran began taking steps that violate the JCPOA's nuclear restrictions.
Articles and Reports
September 25, 2019
The attacks earlier this month on critical oil facilities in Saudi Arabia have sharpened the focus on the ways in which Iran is using its missile capabilities to destabilize the Middle East, including through activities that violate U.N. Security Council resolutions.
Articles and Reports
July 25, 2019
Tension between Iran and the West has increased over the past year since the United States withdrew from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and launched a "maximum pressure" campaign aimed at compelling Iran to negotiate a more comprehensive agreement. This tension has thrown the future of the JCPOA into doubt. Key developments since...

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