Export Control Measures Under the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) To Address Iranian Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Their Use by the Russian Federation Against Ukraine

February 27, 2023

Weapon Program: 

  • Military


Thea D. Rozman Kendler

Author's Title: 

Assistant Secretary for Export Administration

Related Country: 

  • Russia
  • Ukraine

This rule amends the Export Administrations Regulations (EAR) to impose new export control measures on Iran. These measures address the use of Iranian Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) by the Russian Federation (Russia) in its ongoing war against Ukraine, contrary to U.S. national security and foreign policy interests. Although UAVs are also known as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs), for purposes of consistency with the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) they are referred to as UAVs in the EAR. These amendments to the EAR target Iran's supply of UAVs to Russia to enhance Russia's defense industrial base and its military efforts against Ukraine and build on prior EAR amendments, including the addition of Iranian entities to the Entity List as Russian 'military end users.' Specifically, these controls impose license requirements for a subset of EAR99 items that are destined to Iran, regardless of whether a U.S. person is involved in the transaction. Such items are identified by Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS)-6 Codes in a new supplement added to the EAR, which will allow BIS and other relevant U.S. Government agencies to track and quantify these exports. This rule also identifies certain foreign-produced items as subject to the EAR by adding a new foreign direct product (FDP) rule specific to Iran that applies to items in certain categories of the Commerce Control List (CCL) and the EAR99 items identified in this new supplement. This rule similarly revises the EAR's existing Russia/Belarus FDP rule to reference these EAR99 items. Together with a separate rule published in the same issue of the Federal Register adding export controls for Russia and Belarus, these changes impose license requirements on additional exports from abroad and reexports to Iran, Russia, and Belarus, with the purpose of degrading the Iranian UAV program and Russia's use of such UAVs against Ukraine.