Iran's Centrifuges: Models and Status

June 27, 2024

Publication Type: 

  • Weapon Program Background Report

Weapon Program: 

  • Nuclear

Iran possesses thousands of gas centrifuges that are the mainstay of its nuclear program. Gas centrifuges spin uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6) to separate uranium isotopes suitable for nuclear fuel, a process known as uranium enrichment.[1] The number and capacity of these machines determine Iran’s "breakout" time: how long it would take Iran—if it decided to do so—to produce the fuel for a small nuclear arsenal. The machines are also key to Iran's ability to "sneakout" by producing nuclear weapon fuel at secret sites. 

In recent years, Iran has developed and deployed centrifuge models that can enrich greater amounts of uranium with fewer machines relative to its original IR-1 design. Iran’s increasing mastery of centrifuge design and manufacturing raises the risk of a "sneakout," and it reflects an acquisition of knowledge that cannot be reversed. 

The table below sets out the capacity and primary materials of each of Iran’s currently-deployed centrifuge models, as well as the number of each model known from publicly-available IAEA reports[2] to be installed and/or enriching uranium at Iran’s three declared enrichment sites: the Fuel Enrichment Plant (FEP) and Pilot Fuel Enrichment Plant (PFEP) at Natanz and the Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant (FFEP) at Fordow. It is not an inventory of all centrifuges in Iran. Iran has not permitted the IAEA to monitor or verify centrifuge production since early 2021. Consequently, according to a June 2024 joint statement by France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, “The IAEA does not know how many centrifuges Iran has and where they are located.”

In addition to the models listed in the table, Iran has developed several other centrifuge designs that are not currently installed at any of its declared sites, including the IR-2, IR-3, IR-6m, IR-6sm, IR-6smo, IR-8s, IR-s, and IR-9s.

The information in the table about the number of centrifuges installed or operating is based on IAEA reports. The information on centrifuge capacity and rotor material is based on a November 2021 Iran Watch report, Beyond the IR-1: Iran’s Advanced Centrifuges and their Lasting Implications, which contains analysis of each centrifuge model. 

MODEL

CAPACITY (SWU/yr)[3]

ROTOR ASSEMBLY MATERIAL[4]

FIRST TESTED[5]

# INSTALLED

# IN PRODUCTION MODE[6]

 

IR-1

 

~0.8[7]

 

Aluminum + maraging steel

 

Late 1990s

Total: 7260

at FEP:[12] 6204
at PFEP: 12
at FFEP: 1044

Total: 7260

at FEP:[12] 6204
at PFEP: 12
at FFEP: 1044

IR-2m

~4-5[8]

Maraging steel + carbon fiber

 

2009

 

Total: 3759

at FEP:[13] 3654
at PFEP: 105
at FFEP: 0

Total: 1669

at FEP:[13] 1566
at PFEP: 103
at FFEP: 0

IR-4

~4-5[8]

Carbon fiber

 

2009

 

Total: 2475

at FEP:[13] 2088
at PFEP: 387
at FFEP: 0

Total: 884

at FEP:[13] 522
at PFEP:
 362
at FFEP: 0

IR-5

6-10[9]

 

Carbon fiber[10]

 

 

2013

 

Total: 27

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 27
at FFEP: 0

Total: 25

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 25
at FFEP: 0

IR-6

6-10[9]

Carbon fiber[11]

2013

Total: 1097

at FEP:[13] 522
at PFEP:
 243
at FFEP: 332

Total: 1073

at FEP:[13] 522
at PFEP:
 219
at FFEP: 332

IR-6s

3-6[9]

Carbon fiber[10]

2013

Total: 21

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 21
at FFEP: 0

Total: 0

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 0
at FFEP: 0

IR-7

11-20[9]

Carbon fiber[10]

2019

Total: 1

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 1
at FFEP: 0

Total: 0

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 0
at FFEP: 0

IR-8

16-24[9]

Carbon fiber[10]

2017

Total: 1

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 1
at FFEP: 0

Total: 0

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 0
at FFEP: 0

IR-8B

10-15[9]

Carbon fiber[10]

2019

Total: 1

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 1
at FFEP: 0

Total: 0

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 0
at FFEP: 0

IR-9

34-50[9]

Carbon fiber[10]

2021

Total: 1

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 1
at FFEP: 0

Total: 0

at FEP: 0
at PFEP: 0
at FFEP: 0

 

 

Footnotes: 

[1] Natural uranium contains about 0.7 percent of the fissionable isotope U-235. Uranium is considered enriched when the concentration of U-235 is increased. Uranium enriched up to 5 percent concentration of U-235 is suitable for nuclear reactors. Weapons-grade uranium is usually defined as 90 percent U-235.

[2] As of May 27, 2024. 

[3] The capacity of a centrifuge is measured in “separative work units” (SWU) per year. SWU reflect the effort needed to separate the two uranium isotopes (U-235 and U-238) in the enrichment process. A centrifuge with a higher SWU per year can enrich greater quantities of uranium to higher levels in shorter periods of time than a less efficient centrifuge.

[4] The rotor of a centrifuge is what spins the uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas to separate uranium isotopes. Centrifuges use “bellows” between rotors to form a rotor assembly that allows for flexibility when spinning at higher speeds. The bellows and the rotors themselves must be made with strong, lightweight material. Carbon fiber is an ideal material for this purpose, but aluminum and specialty steels such as maraging steel can also be used. 

[5] Fed with UF6; excludes mechanical testing.

[6] Accumulating enriched uranium

[7] Calculated from output data contained in IAEA reports.

[8] Based on the capacity of the Pakistani P2 centrifuge, the base model for the IR-2m and IR-4.

[9] The low end of the range is based on estimates contained in "A Comprehensive Survey of Iran's Advanced Centrifuges" by David Albright, Sarah Burkhard, and Spencer Faragasso, published by The Institute for Science and International Security on December 2, 2021 and available at https://isis-online.org/isis-reports/detail/a-comprehensive-survey-of-ir... the high end of the range consists of nominal claims made by Iranian officials or Iranian media (possibly referring to kg UF6 SWU/yr, which has a value 1.47 times higher than the more standard kg U SWU/yr).

[10] Due to technological progression, centrifuges developed after the IR-4 are assumed to have their rotor assembly made entirely from carbon fiber even when not explicitly confirmed as such. 

[11] Although Iran originally claimed the IR-6 rotor assembly to be made entirely of carbon fiber, the IAEA verified in January 2021 that Iran had manufactured metal bellows for IR-6 centrigues, which were subsequently displayed in a video released by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI). See: GOV/2021/10 Para. 38 and "The IR-6 Centrifuge Needs Further Development" by David Albright and Sarah Burkhard, published by The Institute for Science and International Security on July 14, 2022.

[12] The figures for IR-1 centrifuges are arrived at by adding the number of additional machines installed (120) as reported in GOV/2023/8 Para. 18 to the total planned for 36 cascades in the initial Iranian DIQ (6084) as reported in GOV/INF/2021/27 Para. 3, which corresponds to the 36 cascades reported to be installed and in production mode in GOV/2024/26 Section C.3.1. Since February 2024, there have been discrepancies between the number of operating cascades at FEP stated in the table and the applicable footnote in Section C.3.1. of the IAEA's Verification and Monitoring reports. The numbers reflected here come from the table.

[13] The IR-2m and IR-4 figures for FEP are an estimate based on an average of 174 machines per cascade, obtained by dividing the total number of machines planned in the Iranian DIQ reported in GOV/INF/2021/27 Para. 3 (1044) by the number of planned cascades (6). That average (174) is multiplied by the number of cascades reported in GOV/2023/24 Para. 23 to be installed and/or in production mode. Likewise, the initial Iranian DIQ specified 174 IR-6 machines per cascade. Although Iran subsequently increased the number of planned IR-2m, IR-4, and IR-6 cascades in its updated DIQ as reported in GOV/INF/2022/17 Para. 7, GOV/INF/2022/23 Para. 3, GOV/INF/2022/24 Para. 2, and GOV/2023/8 Para. 18, there is no indication that it altered the number of centrifuges contained in each cascade. Since February 2024, there have been discrepancies between the number of operating cascades at FEP stated in the table and the applicable footnote in Section C.3.1. of the IAEA's Verification and Monitoring reports. The numbers reflected here come from the table.