Also Known As:
9 Krasnoproletarskaya Street, 103030 Moscow
Federal State Unitary Enterprise in the rocket and space industry; sanctioned by the U.S. Department of the Treasury in February 1999 for materially contributing, or attempting to contribute, to a foreign country's effort to acquire, produce and/or deliver weapons of mass destruction; sanctioned by the U.S. Department of State in July 1998 for engaging in proliferation activities related to Iran's missile programs; sanctions removed in March 2010; added in July 1998 to the U.S. "Entity List" of end users who have engaged in activities that could result in an increased risk of diversion to weapons of mass destruction programs, activities sanctioned by the U.S. State Department, or activities contrary to U.S. national security and/or foreign policy interests; in May 1992, sanctioned for two years by the U.S. Department of State for conspiring to transfer Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) Annex Category I items to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
Signed an agreement in January 1991 to transfer technology and supply ISRO with two cryogenic stages, which are used in India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV); in October 1993, halted its ISRO technology transfer and training activities, and negotiated a modified contract in March 1994, in which ISRO accepted a further two stages and two ground models instead of the technology transfer, reportedly with an option to purchase three more cryogenic stages; reportedly deliverefd the first unit in 1998.
Established in 1985.