1. Almost three years ago, China, France, Germany, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, the European Union and the Islamic Republic of Iran concluded the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, marking the culmination of 12 years of intense diplomatic efforts to reach a comprehensive, long-term and proper solution to the Iranian nuclear issue. The Plan, which was unanimously endorsed by the Security Council in its resolution 2231 (2015), laid out reciprocal commitments.
2. Since 16 January 2016, the International Atomic Energy Agency has reported 11 times to the Security Council that the Islamic Republic of Iran has been implementing its nuclear-related commitments under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. In its most recent quarterly reports (see S/2018/205 and S/2018/540), the Agency again reported that it continued to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material and that its evaluations regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities for the Islamic Republic of Iran remained ongoing. The Agency also reported that the Islamic Republic of Iran continued to provisionally apply the Additional Protocol to its Safeguards Agreement, pending its entry into force, and to apply the transparency measures set out in the Plan. In its latest report, the Agency further indicated that it had conducted complementary accesses under the Additional Protocol to all the sites and locations in the Islamic Republic of Iran that it needed to visit.
3. Notwithstanding the continued adherence by the Islamic Republic of Iran to its nuclear-related commitments, the agreement is unfortunately at a crossroads. On 8 May 2018, the United States of America announced its withdrawal from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action and the re-imposition of all national sanctions that had been lifted or waived pursuant to the Plan. I deeply regret this setback to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, a major achievement in nuclear non-proliferation that has contributed to regional and international peace and security. I believe that issues not directly related to the Plan should be addressed without prejudice to preserving the agreement and its accomplishments.
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