- North Korea
A new intelligence report from the German state of Hesse found that Iran engaged in proliferation efforts connected with weapons of mass destruction in 2018. The report states that Iran "attempted to acquire and redistribute such weapons in the context of proliferation," as did North Korea, Pakistan, and Syria. It details the use of foreign academics in fields such as electrical engineering and chemical-biological processes in support of proliferation. The report also highlights Iran and China's use of cyber activities to facilitate "scientific goals." The conclusions are similar to those in reports released earlier in 2019 from the German states of Bavaria and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.