According to a German intelligence report from the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Iran made "32 procurement attempts [...] that definitely or with high likelihood were undertaken for the benefit of proliferation programs" in 2016. Iran is accused in the report of using front companies in the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, and China to facilitate procurement and circumvent international restrictions. An intelligence report from the German state of Hessen said that Iran used "guest academics" and "research exchanges" to support its weapon programs. A third intelligence report, from the German state of Saxony-Anhalt said Iran works "unabated" on its missile program. German diplomats said that they have "no indication of Iran violating its JCPOA commitments" and that Iran's missile program is "outside the scope of the JCPOA and needs to be dealt with separately."