Iran Importing Missile-Grade Ore from Germany, France

July 2, 2013


Maytall Angel and Jonathan Saul



Iran, exploiting a gap in European Union sanctions, is importing high grade alumina ore from several European countries. Between January 2012 and March 2013, Iran purchased around 4,000 metric tons of alumina, mainly from Germany and France, as well as from Slovenia, Italy, Hungary, and Belgium. Alumina ore, the export of which is not currently prohibited under E.U. sanctions, can be used to manufacture ceramic composites for missiles and armor.