Our Publications

Weapon Program Background Report
November 30, 2022
Iran possesses thousands of gas centrifuges that are the mainstay of its nuclear program. Gas centrifuges spin uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6) to separate uranium isotopes suitable for nuclear fuel, a process known as uranium enrichment.[1] The number and capacity of these machines determine Iran’s "breakout" time: how long it would take Iran—i
Weapon Program Background Report
September 16, 2022
Iran operates dozens of facilities across the nuclear fuel cycle. This table lists Iran’s known and alleged nuclear sites and their purpose, location, and operating status.
Weapon Program Background Report
July 27, 2022
Iran’s missile arsenal is the largest in the Middle East. This table sets forth what is publicly known, claimed, or estimated about the capabilities of Iran's missiles that are most likely to be used either as nuclear-weapon delivery vehicles or for conventional strikes against high-payoff targets, such as bases or infrastructure.
Weapon Program Background Report
June 29, 2022
Since March 2020, Iran has successfully launched two new, multi-stage space launch vehicles, announced the development of new ballistic and cruise missiles, unveiled underground missile launch facilities, and tested its missiles in a series of military exercises.
Weapon Program Background Report
May 26, 2022
Since February 2021, Iran has enriched uranium above 60 percent purity, expanded its overall stockpile of enriched uranium, and failed to answer questions from the International Atomic Energy Agency about undeclared nuclear sites despite agreeing to do so.
Weapon Program Background Report
June 29, 2020
Iran's arsenal of guided missiles is the largest and most diverse in the Middle East. The essay provides an overview of Iran's current capabilities, identifies key entities supporting the effort, explains where Iran has found foreign help, and reviews efforts to hinder Tehran’s progress.
Weapon Program Background Report
December 13, 2019
This chronology tracks chemical weapon-related developments involving Iran, from its accession to the Geneva Protocol in 1929, through the use of chemical weapons during the Iran-Iraq War, Iran's CW-related procurement from foreign suppliers, and U.S. sanctions targeting entities involved in these procurement efforts.
Weapon Program Background Report
November 26, 2019
This essay describes the origins of Iran's chemical weapon (CW) program during the Iran-Iraq war, Iran's efforts to establish an indigenous CW production capability through foreign procurement, its CW-related transfers, and its adherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).
Weapon Program Background Report
August 9, 2016
This is a brief history of Iran's progress toward the ability to build a nuclear weapon. The emphasis is on achievements, rather than motives. The achievements presented here have been cataloged primarily by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).